Shan xi Province is situated at west of North China, east of the loess plateau. For the geographical coordinates, which lies in the north latitude 34°34’-40°43’, the east longitude 110°14’-114°33’.The width from east to west is about 290 kilometers, the length from north to south is about 550 kilometers, the total area of the whole province is about 156000 square kilometers, who takes up about the total area’s 1.6%. The outline of Shan xi Province is about assumes the northeast diagonal southwest slightly the parallelogram. There has a lofty mountain of Taihang to make the natural blockade on the east, whose neighbor is He Bei Province. The west and south take the yellow river as the moat, with Shan xi and Henan faces one another; in the north, there has continuous Great Wall, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is on the border of it. The terrain of Shan xi is complex, there has various of terrain, for example, there have mountains region, the knoll, the platen, the basin, the Taiwan place and so on, the mountains area and the knoll take up more than the total area’s 2/3, most of it in elevation is between 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters. The peak of it is Ye Doufeng which is in the Norton Wu Tai, whose elevation is 3,058 meters. The perigee of it is the place of xi yang river enters Yellow River’s place, which is within the boundaries of Yuan qu County, the elevation is only 180 meters.There are mountains and rivers insides and outside of Shan xi. East of it is the mountain of Taihang, west of it is Lü Liang mountain, north extends the Hong shan, Wu Tai shan. In the south there has a peale mountain called Zhongtiao. In the middle of it there have Taiyuan Mountains.

The major river has two big river systems, while are called Renhe river and Haihe river, within the boundaries there have the size rivers more them 1,000 strip, drainage area is bigger than 100 square kilometers, are bigger than 4,000 kilo-meters. The river which are longer then 150 kilometers are Fenhe river, Qinhe river ,Sushui river, san chuan river, xin shui river the mulberry lost river, Hutuo river, the Zhanghe river and so on. The longest river is Fenhe river the whole length is 659 kilometers. A river which is called the Chinese nation cradle of culture Yellow river, north enters a country from the Pianguan country Laoniu wan, which flous very hurry, arrives at Ruicheng county Feng ling du. But to the east it fold, until to the south of Yuan qu County edge-runner pan ditch and then leaves it. On the way there have 19 counties and 50 villages, flow 965 kilometers. Shan xi have some kinds of terrain, the elevation difference is disparate, thus both has the latitude region dimate and has the obvious vertical variation. Shan xi is situated at Hu middle latitude, and it is near the sea, but because the sierra have been autting off, the summer monsoon dimate. The Amnual mean temperature is 3°-14°C and the diurnal temperature is most difference, also the north and south. West of Yellow River rally land, Taiyuan basin and the southeast of Shan xi the majority of areas, average temperature is between 8°-10°. Lin Fen, the Yun Cheng basin yearly average temperature reaches 12°-14°C.

The winter temperature of the whole province is below 0°C, summer the whole province universal high temperature, in July the temperature is situated between 21°C-26°C. The frost-free period of Shan xi is south long north short, and the flat country long mountainous region short. The Datong basin keeps 110-140 days, Wu Tai mountain only 85 days, the xin zhou basin by the north and eastern part of the mountainous area could keep 135-155 days. Linfen and the Yun cheng basin could reaches 200-220 days. The whole province year precipitation is 400-650 millimeters, but the season distribution are non-unifonity, in the summer, during tune and August, the rainfull is too much, it com take up the whole year’s 60%. The whole province’s precipitation is strong effected by the terrain. There have many mountains and fewer basins. Shan xi has three rainfall areas, one is southwest of China, one is in Wu Tai Mountain area, and another is in the Lüliang area.

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